The aim of this Italian umbrella review was to establish which specific elements of the built environment can contribute to improving the physical activity of self-sufficient, older adults living independently in the city.

The review found that the elements positively associated with physical activity in older adults were: walkability; residential density/urbanisation; street connectivity; land-use mix-destination diversity; overall access to facilities, destinations and services; pedestrian-friendly infrastructures; greenery and aesthetically pleasing scenery; high environmental quality; street lighting; crime-related safety; traffic-related safety.

Not surprisingly, the elements that were negatively associated with physical activity were: poor pedestrian access to shopping centers; poor pedestrian-friendly infrastructure and footpath quality; barriers to walking/cycling; lack of aesthetically pleasing scenery; crime-related unsafety; unattended dogs; inadequate street lighting and upkeep; traffic; littering, vandalism, decay; pollution; noise.

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