This review paper from the University of Agriculture in Krakow summarises many aspects of the ecological role of trees in urban landscapes while considering their growth conditions.

Plant growth conditions in cities are worsening due to high urbanisation rates and new stress factors however the review shows that the human-related environmental degradation, which generates urban tree stress, can be effectively alleviated by the presence of trees.

The review is in four parts:

  • The first section reviews concerns related to urban environment degradation and its influence on trees. Intense urbanisation affects the environment of plants, raising the mortality rate of urban trees.
  • The second part deals with the dieback of city trees, its causes and scale. The average life expectancy of urban trees is relatively low and depends on factors such as the specific location, proper care and community involvement, among others.
  • The third part concerns the ecological and economic advantages of trees in the city structure. Trees affect citizen safety and health, but also improve the soil and air environment.
  • Finally, they present the drawbacks of tree planting and discuss if they are caused by the tree itself or rather by improper tree management.

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